BIO-DIESEL: An Effective Fuel for Future Md. Wasim Aktar*and Anjan Bhattacharyya Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Department of Agricultural Chemicals, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur-741252, Nadia, West Bengal, India Abstract:- With increase in the demand of petroleum products the prices of petrol & diesel are increasing world wide. This trend is expected in years to come as the resources are also depleting. Hence alternative sources of energy for running our generators, automobiles etc. are being considered world wide.The possibility of obtaining oil from plant resources has aroused a great interest and in several countries, vegetable oil after esterification being used as 'Biodiesel'.
Biodiesel is a nontoxic, biodegradable replacement of the petroleum diesel. The vegetable oils are treated with alcohol ethanol or methanol and alkali. The products of the reaction are Biodiesel and glycerol. Chemically biodiesel is monoalkyl esters of long chain fatty acid and its properties are similar to petrodiesel. The biodiesel can be used as 20% blend with petrodiesel in existing engines without any modification. Both the edible and non edible vegetable oils can be used as the raw materials for the biodiesel.
Considering the cost and demand of the edible oils the non edible oils may be preferred for the preparation of biodiesel in India. In the present article an effort was given to highlight the different issues related to core content of bio-diesel, such as standardization of bio-diesel, cost benefit ratio for a realistic approach with special reference to our work, a proposed ideal plant for bio-diesel, etc. Introduction:- "The use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today.
But such oils may become in the course of time as important as petroleum and coal tar products of the present time." - Rudolf Diesel, 1912 India ranks sixth in the world in terms of energy demand accounting for 3.5 percent of world commercial energy demand in 2001. The energy demand is expected to grow at 4.
8 percent. The demand of Diesel (HSD) is projected to grow from 39.81 million metric tons in 2001-02 to 52.32 million metric tons in 2006-07 at the rate of 5.
6 percent per annum. Our crude oil production as per the Tenth Plan Working Group is estimated to hover around 33-34 million metric tons per annum even though there will be increase in gas production from 86 million standard cubic meters per day (2002-03) to 103 million standard cubic meters per day in (2006-07). With the ever growing increase of usage of diesel and petrol and decrease in natural resources like fossil fuels, there is a great demand for usage of alternate fuels. Out of the alternative fuels known till date, like biodiesel, fuel cells, hydrogen fuel etc, biodiesel is gaining lot of importance due to easy availability of raw materials and simple process of manufacture. Biodiesel is the name of an eco-friendly, clean burning alternative fuel, produced from domestic, renewable resources, like vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend.
It can be used in CI. Diesel engines with little or no modifications. Biodiesel is simple to use, biodegradable, non-toxic and essentially free of sulphur and aromatics. Since it is made from renewable resources and can be made locally, use of biodiesel can contribute substantially to the country's economy. Studies proved that for every one unit of energy needed to produce biodiesel, 3.
24 units of energy is gained. Because of this high energy balance it helps preserve the natural resources and also helps in increased domestic energy security. Biodiesel is made through a chemical process called transesterification whereby the glycerine is separated from the fat or vegetable oil. The process eaves behind two products - methyl esters (the chemical name for biodiesel) and glycerine. Transesterification of a vegetable oil was initially conducted as early as 1853, by scientists E. Duffy and J.
Patrick, many years before the first diesel engine became functional. Rudolf Diesel's prime model, a single l0ft (3m) iron cylinder with a flywheel at its base, ran on its own power by peanut oil - a biofuel (though not strictly biodiesel, since it was not transesterified) for the first time in Augsburg, Germany on 10 August 1893. In remembrance of this event, 10 August has been declared International Biodiesel Day. He believed that the utilization of a biomass fuel was the real future of his engine. Definition: Biodiesel is a transesterification product of vegetable oils, either edible or non-edible both used or unused and animal fats.
Technically, biodiesel can be defined as the monoalkyl (methyl or ethyl) esters of long chain fatty acid made from virgin or used vegetable oils (both edible & non-edible) like Jatropha curcas, Karanja, rapeseed, sunflower, soybean, peanut, palm, rice bran, mustard, etc and animal fats. Even algae are experimented successfully for production of biodiesel. Biodiesel refers to the pure fuel before blending with diesel fuel. Biodiesel blends are denoted as, "BXX" with "XX" representing the percentage of biodiesel contained in the blend (B20 is 20 percent biodiesel, 80 percent petroleum diesel). Sources: All the Tree Bearing Oil (TBO) seeds - edible like soya beans, sunflower, mustard oil, etc, and non- edible like Jatropha curcas, Pongemia pinnata (Honge or Karanja) are the sources of biodiesel.
Biodiesel from edible oils is much more expensive than hydrocarbon-based diesel fuels due to the relatively high costs of vegetable oils. The cost of biodiesel can be reduced if non-edible oils, and used frying oils are considered instead of edible oils. Non- edible oils such as neem, mahua, karanja, babassu, jatropha, etc. are easily available in many parts of the world including India, and are very cheap compared to edible oils. Edible oil seeds can't be used for biodiesel production in our country, as its indigenous production does not meet our current demand. Among the non- edible TBO, Jatropha Curcas has been identified as the most suitable in India.
Crop for Biodiesel Production:- This is perhaps the most important and also the most neglected issue. As mentioned earlier for India it appears that non-edible oils are the choice of feed stock for Biodiesel production. Out of the 200 TBOs, some promising tree species have been evaluated and it has been found that there are a number of them such as Jatropha Curcas and Pongamia Pinnata ('Honge' or 'Karanja') which would be very suitable in our conditions. However, Jatropha Curcas has been found most suitable species for the purpose. It will use lands which are largely unproductive for the time being and are located in poverty stricken areas and in degraded forests.
It will also be planted on farmers' field boundaries and fallow lands. They may also be planted in Public lands such as along the railways, roads and irrigation canals. There is a need to collect scientific data to get the realistic figures on the yield pattern and on the oil content/ quality. Presently, most of such figures are just based on preliminary studies and we have no pilot projects to support the data. To begin with Jatropha Curcas seems to be the most potential candidate considering its favorable properties.
Some reports indicate that Jatropha gives yields varying from 1.5 tons / hectare to as high as 12 tons / hectares. However, the types of genetic species, which give high yield, are not classified.
There are enormous possibilities for selecting and breeding crops with higher yields of suitable oil. Proposed Jatropha Plantation: Jatropha curcas has been found the most suitable tree specie for the reasons summarized below: i) It can be grown as a quick yielding plant even in adverse land situations viz. degraded and barren lands under forest and non-forest use, and drought prone areas, marginal land and as agro forestry crop.
It can be planted on fallow lands and along farmers field boundaries as hedge because it does not grow too tall as well as on vacant lands alongside railways, highways, irrigation canals and unused lands in townships etc. Under Public/Private Sector Undertaking. ii) The seeds of Jatropha are available during the non-rainy season, which facilitates better collection and processing. The cost of plantation is largely incurred in the first year and improved planting material can make a huge difference in yield.
iii) Raising Jatropha plant and its maintenance creates jobs for the rural poor, particularly the landless, in plantation and primary processing through expellers. iv) It has multiple uses and after the extraction of oil from the seeds, the oil cake left behind is an excellent organic manure, the bio mass of Jatropha curcas enriches the soil and it can also be put to other uses. v) Retains soil moisture and improve land capability and environment.
vi) Jatropha adds to the capital stock of the farmers and the community, for sustainable generation of income and employment. Economics of Jatropha biodiesel: Many experts say different data regarding the yield of the jatropha plantation. It varies from 500 kgs to 1500 kgs per hectare in the rain-fed areas to about 4000 kgs to 12,000 kgs per hectare in the irrigated land. However, there is no commercial plantation in India to estimate the yielding pattern of th jatropha.
Based on the practical experience gained by an organization located in Maharahstra, which is involving in research & development of Jatropha plantation since 1995, it is found that the yield of jatropha will not exceed more than 1500 kgs per hectare in rain-fed area and the yield would be increased to 4000kgs per hectare if there are proper watering facilities. It also suggests that a minimum quantity of water is required throughout the lifetime of the plantation for maximum yielding. In India it is estimated that cost of Bio-Diesel produced by trans-esterification of oil obtained from Jatropha Curcas oil-seeds shall be approximately same as that of petroleum-diesel. The cost of bio-diesel varies between Rs. 16.
59 ? 14.98 per litre. To improve the economics of jatropha plantation and biodiesel processing, there are many activities including value-addition have been recommended by various R & D institution.
Some of them are shown as below: ? Inter Cultivation ? many crops have been identified as suitable crops for intercropping. ? Honey Bee keeping ? Which inturn help in improving the yield by helping the cross-pollination ? Medicinal Products : ? Silk Worms Growing ? recommended type of worm is Eri by Central Silk Board: ? Biomass ( fruit covers) as fuel; ? Cattle feed manufacturing ? by de-toxification of the cake. ? Glycerol ? identification & utilization of glycerine which is a by-product from the trans esterification process; and most importantly ? Manufacturing Bio-Lubricants from the jatropha oil. Status of Jatropha Plantation & Processing Units: Many organizations are working on the development of biodiesel sector in India and few entrepreneurs/farmers have started the plantation of bio-crops. However, there is no single commercial biodiesel processing unit in India mainly due to non-availability of seed for bio-diesel production The plantation of tree bearing non-edible oil seeds has not been undertaken on a large scale in India even there is a large potential for bio-crop plantation and for setting up of biodiesel processing units. As yet, the people are not aware of the potential of Jatropha curcas to give economic returns from degraded ? unproductive lands, fallow lands and field boundaries.
There are many gaps in the knowledge relating to the field of plantation of Jatropha curcas and other oilseed bearing tree species, processes, technologies, economics & management issues related to plantation of bio-crops and bio-diesel processing units, government policies, financial resources and marketing of the products, which need to be filled up through knowledge transfer to farmers & entrepreneurs. The area to be covered under jatropha plantation is huge for the proposed blending of even 5% biodiesel with petro-diesel, since it is new and upcoming programme in India. And hence, an integrated approach with Government-Private participation in developing the jatropha plantation as well as setting up of unit Jatropha seed contains 30% oil, and oil extraction can be 91-92%. 1.
05 Kg of oil will be required to produce 1 Kg of Biodiesel, recovery from sale of crude glycerol will be at the rate of Rs. 10 per Kg. With volatility in the price of crude, the use of Bio-diesel is economically feasible.
Work-done in India : In India, attempts are being made for using non-edible and under-exploited oils for production of esters by Harbinsons Biotech Pvt. Ltd. Punjab Agricultural University Indian Institute of Petroleum (IIP).
Indian Institute of Chemical Technology Besides, preliminary studies on the utilization of non-edible oils such as Neem, Mahua, Linseed etc. as fuel, are being carried out at IIT, Delhi and IIT, Madras. IOC R&D is also doing some work on the trans-esterification of vegetable oils. IOC (R&D) has already set up a biodiesel production facility of 60 kg/day at Faridabad.
Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd has a pilot plant utilizing Karanj for biodiesel production in Mumbai. Cultivation details of jatropha:- PROPAGATION AND MANAGEMENT: PROPAGATION METHODS GENERATIVE PROPAGATION EFFECTING FACTORS Direct seeding ? Quality of seeds ? Seding depth ? Date of sowing Transplantation of precultivated plants Seeds beds(bare roots) Poly bags ? Type of precultivation ? Length of precultivation ? Age of precultivation VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION(cuttings) Direct planting ? Right time Transplanting of precultivated plants Seeds beds(bare roots) Poly bags ? Right size ? Right age ? Right strain ? Right source SUCCESSFULL PRECULTIVATION IS CHARACTERIZED BY ? High germination rates of seeds ? High sprouting rates of cuttings ? High survival rates Basing the propagation method on rainfall conditions plays a decisive role in the survival and properties of the plant in field. Method of cultivation should be chosen on the basis of ? Maximum survival rates ? Intended utilization of the plantation 1. For quick establishment of hedges and plantation for erosion control, directly planted cuttings are best. 2. For long-lived plantations for vegetative oil production, plants propagated by seeds are better.
3. With better rainfall conditions, the plantations could also be established by direct seeding. Direct seeding, precultivation of seedlings, easily propagates the Jatropha transplanting of spontaneous wild plants and direct planting of cuttings. Seed should be collected when capsules split open. Use of fresh seeds improves germination. Intervals of presoaking and drying, or partial removal of the testa, are more successful than presoaking alone.
With good moisture conditions, germination takes 10 days. The seed shell splits, the radicula emerges and 4 small peripheral roots are formed. Soon after development of the 1st leaves, the cotyledons wither and fall off. Further growth is sympodial. Climate Can withstand severe heat. Likes heating and doing well in warmer areas.
When cold will drop its leaves. It can withstand light frost but not for prolonged periods. The older the tree the better it will withstand. Black frost will almost certainly kill young plants and severely damage older plants Quality of the soil Best in sandy well-drained soils. Can withstand very poor soils and grow in saline conditions All the actors in the Jatropha sector suggest, anyway, using organic fertilizer in order to obtain higher yield.
Irrigation It handles dryness very well and it is possible to live almost entirely of humidity in the air. - See Cape Verde where rainfall is as low as 250 mm a year. Differences are expressed in what is optimum rainfall as some readings say 600 mm and some say 800 mm whilst some areas in India report good crops with rainfall of 1380 mm. Under irrigation 1 500 mm is given. 500 - 600 mm of rainfall is the limit.
Below it the production depends on the local water condition in the ground. It will also stand for long periods without water - up to 2 years ? and then grow again when rains occur again. Weeding Standard cultural practices are timely weeding (4 times a year), proper fertilization, surface ploughing and pruning. With these management practices a yield around 15-20 kg of fruit per tree can be obtained even if the plants did not reach full maturity. Manuring and fertilizer Although Jatropha is adapted to low fertility sites and alkaline soils, better yields seem to be obtained on poor quality soils if fertilizers containing small amounts of calcium, magnesium, and Sulfur are used. Mycorrhizal associations have been observed with Jatropha and are known to aid the plant's growth under conditions where phosphate is limiting It is recommended that 1 kg of farmyard manure/ plus 100 g of Neem waste for every seedling, with a recommendation of 2500 plants per ha this comes up to 2.
5 t organic fertilizer per ha.Besides it after transplantation and the establishment of the plant fertilizer such as N, P and K should be applied. Twenty gram urea + 120 g SSP and 16 g MoP should be applied annually The possibility to return the press-cake (or part of it) to Jatropha fields should be carefully considered. Crop density References recommend spacing for hedgerows or soil conservation is 15cm - 25cm x 15cm-25cm in one or two rows respectively and 2m x 1.5m to 3m x 3mm for plantations. Thus there will be between 4,000 to 6,700 plants per km for a single hedgerow and double that when two rows are planted.
Satisfactory planting widths are 2 x 2 m, 2.5 x 2.5 m, and 3 x 3 m. This is equivalent to crop densities of 2500, 1600 and 1111 plants/ha, respectively. Distance of 2MtX2Mt be kept for commercial cultivation.Wider spacing is reported to give larger yields of fruit.
Genotype Little genetic research seems to be performed, as Information related to the project seems to be rather restricted. Pruning Pruning ? 1st prune The plants need to produce side shoots for maximum sprouting and maximum flowers and seed. Between 90 and 120 Days top of all plants at 25 Cm.
Cut the top off cleanly and cut top to produce 8 ? 12 side branches. It is considered good practice. In order to facilitate the harvesting, it is suggested to keep the tree less than 2 meters. Inter-cropping Specific intolerance with other crops was not detected.
On the contrary the shade can be exploited by shade-loving herbal plants; vegetables such red and green peppers, tomatoes, etc. Picking We have developed the harvest methodology between wet and dry seed crush costing applicable has been compared. Crop yield It appears very difficult to estimate unequivocally the yield of a plant that is able to grow in very different conditions.
Yield is a function of water, nutrients, heat and the age of the plant and other. Many different methods of establishment, farming and harvesting are possible. Yield can be enhanced with right balance of cost, yield, labor and finally cost per Mt. Seed production ranges from about 2 tons per hectare per year to over 12.5t/ha/year, after five years of growth.
Although not clearly specified, this range in production may be attributable to low and high rainfall areas. Table-1. Without irrigation Table-2. With irrigation MT/HA DRY LOW NORMAL HIGH Year 1 0.10 0.25 0.
40 Year 2 0.50 1.00 1.50 Year 3 0.
75 1.25 1.75 Year 4 0.90 1.75 2.25 Year 5 1.
10 2.00 2.75 MT/HA IRRIGATED LOW NORMAL HIGH Year 1 0.75 1.25 2.
50 Year 2 1.00 1.50 3.
00 Year 3 4.25 5.00 5.00 Year 4 5.25 6.
25 8.00 Year 5 5.25 8.00 12.50 Germplasm management:- Seeds are oily and do not store for long. Seeds older than 15 months show viability below 50%.
High levels of viability and low levels of germination shortly after harvest indicate innate (primary) dormancy. Processing and handling:- After collection the fruits are transported in open bags to the processing site. Here they are dried until all the fruits have opened. It has been reported that direct sun has a negative effect on seed viability and that seeds should be dried in the shade.
When the seeds are dry they are separated from the fruits and cleaned. Storage and viability:- The seeds are orthodox and should be dried to low moisture content (5-7%) and stored in air-tight con-tainers. At room temperature the seeds can retain high viability for at least one year. However, because of the high oil content the seeds cannot be expected to store for as long as most orthodox species. Dormancy and pretreatment :- Freshly harvested seeds show dormancy and after-ripening is necessary before the seeds can germinate. Dry seed will normally germinate readily without pre-treatment.
If this is the case, it is not recommended to remove the seedcoat before sowing. Although it speeds up germination there is a risk of getting abnormal seed-lings. Uses of Jatropha curcas : A petrocrop The seeds of Jatropha are available during the non-rainy season.
Raising Jatropha plant and its maintenance creates jobs for the rural poor, particularly the landless, in plantation and primary processing through expellers. It has multiple uses and after the extraction of oil from the seeds, the oilcake left behind can be used for bio-gas production and is excellent organic manure, the bio-mass of Jatropha Curcas enriches the soil and it can also be put to other uses. It retains soil moisture and improves land capability and environment. Jatropha adds to the capital stock of the farmers and the community, for sustainable generation of income and employment.
The seed contains 30 percent oil, and oil extraction can be 91-92 percent. 1.05 kg of oil will be required to produce 1kg of biodiesel. With volatility in the price of crude, the use of biodiesel is economically feasible. Biodiesel plants grown in 11 million hectares of land is estimated to yield a revenue of approximately Rs 20000 crore a year and provide employment to over 12 million people both for plantation and running of the extraction plants, simulating Agri-ecomomy. At present, Indian Railways is growing these crops along the rail tracks and it is estimated that they are able to produce about 5 to 10 percent of diesel required for their use.
Table-3:- Whole plant Roots Leaves Latex Seeds Bark Twig *Planted to prevent water erosion and for conservation * Used as ethnomedicine * Used as ethnomedicine *Resembles shellac *Source of oil (30-40%) suitable as fuel for diesel engine *Yields tannins (37%) *Used as medicine *Promising live fence *Yield a dye used to give tan & brown *Used for making ink *Useful as illumitant, lubricant, in soap and candle making *Used as Dataun (Herbal tooth brush) *useful as green manure *Useful as botanical *Used as ethnomedicine *Used as medicine both internally and externally *Young one cooked and eaten *useful in controlling sand drift *possess Allelopathic properties ECONOMICS OF JATROPHA CULTIVATION:- Of course the interest in the jatropha plantation primarily focuses on biodiesel. Here, the key question is: Will it be possible to establish the right cultivation and processing methods so that the jatropha plant can produce a high-quality fuel which can compete with petrochemical diesel in terms of price? After all, one key element that makes all the difference between success and failure is the cost factor ? in other words, the potential returns.We are not in favor of the implementation of a high-tech agrarian concept that warrants for maximum input and delivers bumper crops. Contrary, we are looking for a practicable type of cultivation that is compatible with the routines and possibilities of local farmers, so that the jatropha plantations can be profitable for the rural cultivators with a minimum input of men, money and materials.
The experts working on the jatropha plantation have developed the best method of cultivating these plants, which require the lowest possible investment of money, labor and materials. Farmer's Return: Farming unlike mechanics has many variances under the same input environment. Many different methods of establishment, farming and harvesting is possible. This trail is specifically designed to guide towards the right balance of cost, yield, labor and finally cost per Mt Essentially the farmers should provide with: ? Technical support and know-how ? Financial support and price policy Technical support and know-how: It is fundamental that the farmer should be provided with the technical skills and the scientific knowledge able to solve specific problems related to Jatropha cultivation.Training sessions and workshops should be organized. Financial support and price policy: In order to build a strong relation the commercial relation should be convenient for both actors, the financial arrangement in terms of price at which the seeds or the oil should be purchased is a critical issue.
The farmer must find the price interesting enough to justify his dedication to the crop. Therefor farmers need to be provided: o The guaranteed offtake of the crop at a minimum price. o Providing the funds and the management disciplines for production.
o Accepting of the weather risk associated with farming The jatropha system is labor oriented. The major tasks for which a high intensity of labor is required are: 1. Plantation 2. Maintenance 3. Seeds harvesting As per conventional experience in India: ? An average time of 275hours of maintenance per hectare per year is required ? Hours necessary to harvest the seeds 125/ MT ? The average daily wage in the agricultural sector in India is RS.
65. Thus an average cost for 1-hour man work of RS.8 has been assumed. Table-4. INPUTS (IRs.
) unit rate total LAND 1 htr 0.00 0.00 Plantg material and overheads 2,500.00 5.00 12,500.00 Manure &, fertilizer 2,870.
00 2,870.00 2,870.00 Labour & others 300.00 50.
00 6,000.00 Irrigation, Weeding 3,000.00 3,000.00 3,000.00 TOTAL : 24,370.00 OUT-PUT: $1250/Ha ; 12.
5Mt/Ha ;$100/MT Table-5. CAPITAL INCOME /HCTRE W/O INTERCROPPING (irrigated): EXPEN. OUTPUT INCOME Year 1 24,370.
00 1,500.00 -22,870.00 Year 2 5,000.00 4,500.00 -500.00 Year 3 5,000.
00 25,000.00 20,000.00 Year 4 5,000.00 40,000.
00 35,000.00 Year 5 5,000.00 62,500.
00 57,500.00 Table-6. INCOME /HCTRE WITH INTERCROPPING (irrigated): EXPEN. OUTPUT INCOME Year 1 24,370.00 51,500.00 27,130.
00 Year 2 5,000.00 57,500.00 52,500.
00 Year 3 5,000.00 75,000.00 70,000.
00 Year 4 5,000.00 90,000.00 85,000.00 Year 5 5,000.00 1,12,500.00 1,07,500.
00 The right balance of cost, yield, labor and management techniques may yield handsomely as summarized below with application lower, medium and high techniques: Table-7:- Low Med High Direct Costs Rs./Ha 3,000.0 4,000.0 5,000.0 Output Mt/Ha 6.3 10.
0 12.5 Harvest Cost Rs./Mt 1,000.0 1,000.0 1,000.
0 TotCost Rs./Ha 9,250.0 14,000.0 17,500.0 Oil Yield %/Mt 34.
0% 34.0% 34.0% Oil Value Rs/Mt 13,500.0 13,500.0 13,500.0 Press cake Rs/MT 5,625.
0 9000 11,250.0 Crop Value Rs/H 34,312.5 54,900.0 68,625.0 Gross Margin Rs/H 31,312.5 50,900.
0 63,625.0 Indirect exp Rs/MT 3,000 5,000 6,000 Net Profit Rs./H 28,312.5 45,900 57,625 A Proposed Plan for Bio-Diesel Production:- THE POTENTIAL RETURNS: From Farm ASSUMPTIONS FOR COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS FOR 20 HECTARES LAND: After 5 year we expect seeds yield bet 5-12.5 MT as per low to high management.
Hence here we have taken medium yield.The assumption is taken medium yield of 4 kg per tree per year Table-8. ECONOMICS FOR 20 HECTARES: Hectare 20 Crop Dencity with 2m x 2m( plants/ha) 2500 Seeds per hectare(kg/ha) kg 10,000 Oil per hectare(litre/ha) Liter 3400 Table-9. CAPITAL PLANTATION 4,87,400 LAND & BUILDING 1,45,000 TOTAL 6,32,400 ANNUAL COST LABOUR LAND MAINTENANCE 44,000 SEEDS HARVESTING 2,00,000 HANDLING & STORAGE 25,000 OTHERS 50,000 TOTAL 3,19,000 REVENUE SEEDS 10,00,000 INCOME 6,81,000 From Farm to Factory Table-10.
Anticipated Harvesting And Cash Flow Forecast (Rs.) YEAR 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 PLANTATION-100 H seeds tonnage/ h 250 300 500 800 1250 1250 oil content- 34% 34% 85 102 170 272 425 425 wastage for bio-ferti 165 198 330 528 825 825 SALES VALUES OIL 13500 1147500 1377000 2295000 3672000 5737500 5737500 wastage for bio-ferti 1000 165000 198000 330000 528000 825000 825000 TOTAL 1312500 1575000 2625000 4200000 6562500 6562500 COST OF SALES OIL 5500 467500 561000 935000 1496000 2337500 2337500 wastage for bio-ferti 100 16500 19800 33000 52800 82500 82500 TOTAL COST 484000 580800 968000 1548800 2420000 2420000 TOTAL NET PROFIT 828500 994200 1657000 2651200 4142500 4142500 From Factory to Fuel Production Unit Table-11. Transesterification cost model: PLANT CAPACITY 30,000 GAL/YR CAPITAL PLANT & MACHINARY 12,00,000 BUILDING 1,00,000 INSTALLATION 2,00,000 TOTAL 15,00,000 OPERATING (PER WK) ETHONOL 8650 164GAL/WK @Rs.
52.5/GAL KOH 2750 35.4 lb @ Rs.78/ lb J OIL 31,668 600 gal/wk @Rs.52.
78 UTILITIES 1,000 LABOUR 1,200 70 hrs/wk MAINTENANCE 905 2% of materials PER WEEK TOTAL 46,173 PER YEAR TOTAL 24,00,996 SALES VALUES BIODIESEL@RS.88/GAL 26,40,000 GLYCERIN@RS.40/KG 12,00,000 TOTAL VALUES 36,40,000 COST OF SALES PRODUCTION COST 24,00,996 INDIRECT COST 4,50,000 TOTAL COST 28,50,996 NET PROFIT 7,89,004 RATE OF RETURN *52% *If we take all risk and cost effecting the job the rate of return would never fall below 30% Feasibility status, Uses and Advantage of Bio-Diesel:- Feasibility of producing biodiesel as diesel substitute: There is a large junk of degraded forest land and unutilized public land, field boundaries and fallow lands of farmers where non-edible oil-seeds can be grown. There are many tree species which bear seeds rich in oil. Of these some promising tree species have been evaluated and it has been found that there are a number of them such as Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot) and Pongamia Pinnata (?Honge? or ?Karanja?) which would be very suitable in our conditions.
However, Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot) has been found most suitable for the purpose. Jatropha curcas is a widely occurring variety of TBO. It grows practically all over India under a variety of agro climatic conditions. It can be grown in arid zones as well as in higher rainfall zones and land with thin soil cover. It can grow well in wasteland with very little input.
It grows as a tree up to the height of 3-5 meters. Once grown the crop has a fifty years of life. Its plantation can be taken up as a quick yielding plant even in adverse land situations such as degraded and barren lands under forest and non-forest use, dry and drought prone areas, marginal lands, even on alkaline soils and as agro-forestry crops. It is a good plantation for Eco-restoration in all types of wasteland. It is now widely grown in Chattisgarh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Usage and manufacture in various countries: Many developed countries have active biodiesel programme.
Biodiesel is at present produced by over 21 countries from various plants. For example, USA and Germany mostly use rapeseed, Brazil use castor beans, soya bean and sunflower seeds, Malaysia use palm and Nicaragua use Jatropha for the production of Biodiesel. In India biodiesel is produced mostly from Jatropha Curcas, generally grown as border and as a weed. Different technologies are currently available and used in the industrial production of biodiesel, which is sold under different trademarks.
The alternative diesel fuels must be technically and environmentally acceptable, and economically competitive. From the viewpoint of these requirements, triglycerides (vegetable oils/animal fats) and their derivatives may be considered as viable alternatives for diesel fuels. The problems with substituting triglycerides for diesel fuels are mostly associated with their viscosity, low volatility and polyunsaturated character. The problems, however, have been mitigated by developing vegetable oil derivatives that approximate the properties and performance and make them compatible with hydrocarbon based diesel fuels through pyrolysis, micro-emulsification, dilution, transesterification etc. In India, attempts are being made for using non-edible and under exploited oils for production of esters by various organizations. The following statistics reveal the importance of biodiesel as a future fuel: Table-12.
SI. No. Country Present Usage (per_Year) 1 USA 30 million US gallons (110000 m3) 2 Brazil 3.2 million US gallons (12 000 m3) 3 Canada 6 million gallons (23000 m3) 4 Germany 330000 metric tons 5 India 260000 metric tons Advantages over diesel: The studies revealed that there are many advantages both environmentally and economically as follows:- i) Biodiesel reduces emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) by approximately 50 %and carbon dioxide by 78% on a net lifecycle basis because the carbon in biodiesel emission is recycled from carbon that was already in the atmosphere, rather than being new carbon from petroleum that was sequestered in the earth's crust.
(Sheehan, 1998) ii) Biodiesel contains fewer aromatic hydrocarbons; with nearly 35 percent reduction. iii) It also eliminates sulphur emissions (SO2), because biodiesel doesn't include sulphur. It increases lubricity even in absence of sulphur It is an added point for following Bharat stage II and Ill norms. iv) Biodiesel reduces by as much as 65 percent the emission of particulates (small particles of solid combustion products). v) Biodiesel does produce more NOx emissions than diesel, but these emissions can be reduced through the use of catalytic converters or additives or by retarding the fuel injection timing. The increase in NOx emissions may also be due to the higher cetane rating of biodiesel.
Properly designed and tuned engines may eliminate this increase. vi) It has a higher cetane rating than diesel, and therefore ignites more rapidly when injected into the engine. vii) It reduces hazardous solid wastes up to 96 percent compared to diesel. Handling Measures: i) Biodiesel is much easier to handle and does not require mechanics to use barrier cream on their hands to protect the skin from cracking or redness. ii) It is much less dangerous to put in a vehicles fuel tank as the flash point of biodiesel high.
iii) Biodiesel degrades about faster after spillage, with most of a spill broken down after just 28 days. However, in case of biodiesel blends significant fumes released by benzene and other aromatics present in the base diesel fuel can continue. Safety Measures: On contact with eye, biodiesel may cause irritation to eye. Safety glasses or face shields should be used to avoid mist or splash on face and eyes. Fire fighting measures to be followed as per its fire hazard classification. Hot fuel may cause burn.
Biodiesel should be handled with gloves as it may cause soft skin. Mild irritation on skin can occur. Standardization of Bio-Diesel :- Standardization activities carried out else where in the world: Standards are of vital importance for the approval and warrantee commitment for vehicles to be operated with biodiesel or biofuel. All engines are designed and manufactured for a fuel that has certain characteristics.
All diesel engine manufacturers warranty their engines for "materials and workmanship" and thus define what fuel the engine was designed for and recommend the use of that fuel to their customers in their owner's manual. Therefore, the most important aspect regarding engine warranties and biodiesel is whether an engine manufacturer will avoid its parts and workmanship warranty when biodiesel is used, and whether the fuel producer or marketer will stand behind its fuels should problems occur. Standards are thus necessary as a prerequisite for the market introduction and commercialization of biodiesels or biofuels. Successful alternative fuels fulfill environmental and energy security needs without sacrificing operating performances. Studies have shown that operationally, biodiesel blends perform very similar to low sulphur diesel in terms of power, torque, and fuel without major modification of engines or infrastructure.
Biodiesel is a fuel manufactured from non-edible/edible oils. The fuel typically contains up to 14 different types of fatty acids that are chemically transformed into Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME). Different fractions of each type of FAME present in various feed stocks influence some of the properties of the fuel, for example, high levels of saturates (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0) from pure Bio-diesel improve Cetane number, reduce NOx and improve stability. This also raises the cloud point. However more polyunsaturates (C18:2, C18:3) in B100 will reduce cloud point and Cetane number, reduce stability (unless stability additives are used), and raise NOx.
Resultantly B100 substantially reduces unburnt hydrocarbon, CO and particulate matter It has almost no sulphur, no aromatics and about 10 percent built-in oxygen helps in ensuring complete combustion. Biodiesel, however, suffer from having certain disadvantages. It has excellent solvent properties.
It will soften and degrade certain types of elastomers and natural rubber components over time. It can dissolve the paint if the spills are not wiped. A pile of oil soaked rags can develop enough heat to result in a spontaneous fire. It may be possible that with increased usage of biodiesel, cultivation of these plants may replace the normal agricultural produce, thereby decreasing the food grain production.
The ASTM International has issued biodiesel standard ASTM D 6751 in December2001, which cover the use of pure biodiesel (B100) into conventional diesel fuels up to 20 percent by volume (B20). Higher levels of biodiesel are allowed on a case-by-case basis after discussion with the individual engine company, since most of the experience in the US thus far has been with B20 blends. The steps taken by the biodiesel industry to work with the engine companies and to ensure that fuel meets the ASTM D 6751 standard provides the confidence to users and engine manufacturers that their biodiesel experiences will be positive and trouble-free.
The European standard on the subject is EN 14214. In Germany, the requirements for biodiesels are fixed in DIN standard. Rapeseed methyl ester RME, from rape products, according to DIN E 51606, Vegetable methyl ester PME, purely vegetable products, according to DIN E 51606, Fat methyl ester, vegetable and animal products FME, according to DIN V 51606. Standardization activities carried out in India: Indian Standard on Biodiesel has been prepared by Bureau of Indian Standards as IS 15607: 2005, which is currently under print. The standards make sure that the important factors like complete reaction, removal of glycerin, removal of catalyst, removal of alcohol and absence of free fatty acids are satisfied in the fuel production process. Indian Standard on Biodiesel (B100) also included ethanol content (in case of fatty acid ethyl ester) and the characteristics like sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium to be reported.
Guidance on long term storage of biodiesel has been included in the standard for the consumers who may wish to store fuels for extended periods. Future Projection of Bio-Diesel :- Diesel engines will continue to remain the main mode transport world over from economic consideration. Apart from that Diesel engines today are 500 percent cleaner than they were just 20 years ago. Pollution from diesel cars has been cut by 80-90 percent over the past two decades.
Particulate emissions from diesel fuelled engines have been reduced by 90 percent over the past decade. Direct injection diesel four- stroke engines add up to added mileages or 24 percent increased efficiency over gasoline engines in a large car. Compared to a gasoline engine, a direct injected diesel engine reduces CO2 emissions by as much as 56 percent. Today's best diesel passenger vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts, reducing carbon emissions by 30 percent. Compression-ignition (diesel) direct-injection engines today potentially meet regulatory requirements for emissions while maintaining their traditional advantages of reliability, high efficiency, durability, and competitive cost.
To sustain the growth of biodiesel in India, there is a dire need for extensive R&D programmes on various issues like, seed resource assessment, collection and their cryo-preservation, increased availability of seed, seed setting, inter-cropping, selection of high yielding crops, developing agro technologies for different agro climatic regions, oil quality, biodiesel production technology using new catalysts systems, for example, heterogeneous catalysts, lipase catalyst, supported catalysts on smart polymers etc., utilization of by products and evaluation in engine with respect to shortcomings, emissions, additive response etc. USA aims to produce 1 or 2 billion US gallons (4000000 to 8000000 m3) of biodiesel by 2010. Brazil opened a commercial biodiesel refinery in March 2005. It is capable of producing 12000 m3 (3.2 million US gallons) per year of biodiesel fuel.
The finished product will be currently a blend of gas oil with 2 percent biodiesel and, after 2011, 5 percent biodiesel, both usable in unmodified diesel engines. Canada produces 6 million gallons (23 000 m3) of fatty acid ethyl esters annually as a byproduct of its Omega-3 fatty acid processing. In 2004 the sale of biodiesel through German gas stations rose to 330000 metric tons, although it is currently only available at selected outlets.
In 2004, however, 45 percent of all biodiesel sales went directly to large end users, such as trucking companies. The industry is expecting a surge in demand since the authorization at the beginning of 2004, through European Union legislation, of a maximum 5 percent biodiesel addition. India expects to increase efficiency of biodiesel production to 1340000 metric tons by 2011-12. It can be concluded by saying that usage of biodiesel produced from non- edible vegetable oil, either as a blend or as an alternate is beneficial in achieving the objectives of emission norms (BS II & S Ill), proper utilization of arid land, poverty mitigation, employment generation, etc. The clean diesels of the future will also run on vegetable oils. * author for correspondence:- Md.
Wasim Aktar E-mail ID:- email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org.
1) Md. Wasim Aktar is a Senior Research Fellow in Export Testing Laboratory, APEDA, Govt. of India, under Deptt of Agricultural Chemicals, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India 2) Prof. Anjan Bhattacharyya is the Head,Deptt of Agricultural Chemicals, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal, India